For those of whom think that a slow loading website is not a huge deal, I have some bad news for you. By the end of this article I hope to convince you that speeding up your website will surely improve conversions. Especially if you have thousands of visitors or more per month.
Consider the effect of a 1 second delay on your website. The time it takes for one heart beat, can cause a customer to click away, or stop a sale dead in its tracks.
Research shows that a one second delay in page load time can produce the following effect:
For websites with millions of page views, the effect can be compounded. Consider the fact that Amazon reported an increase in sales of 1 percent for every tenth of a second improvement to their site load speed. (see the details here at Amazon).
Furthermore, there is some research that shows how impatient web visitors can be. In our frenetic and chaotic world, site visitors can’t be bothered to wait if a site takes longer than 3 seconds to load.
Need more evidence on why site speed is so vitally important to improve conversions?
Our good friends at Akamai found that web visitors are simply an impatient group of people. Consider these stats:
That means a slow website is the equivalent of lost income. Even if web visitors do manage to stick around, repeated slow web page load times may result in lost opportunities to display on-site advertising, as well as shopping car abandonment.
Let’s hope by now you are waking up to the fact that slow page load times can be a severe detriment to your website
If you still stubbornly think you can’t improve conversions by speeding up your web pages, here’s a short list of other side effects a slow loading website can have:
Whenever someone clicks on a Google search engine result (aka SERP) and is frustrated by a slow web page, they may click the back button and go on to find another search result. As a consequence, Google registers this back click as a “bounce”.
Google wants give its users of its search engine the best possible experience, as a result, the “bounce” rate is one indicator that the site is a good search result for them. Google employees have even stated that they look at the site speed as a signal in determining search engine rankings.
A site can spend big bucks on optimizing its content for the much hallowed search engines, but if a significant amount of the visitors don’t have the patience to stick around to see it, Google may eventually notice and send less traffic to that site.
What about mobile devices? The delay of page load times have even more negative consequences with those with hand-held devices.
These folks more often than not have a limit on bandwidth and are not entirely thrilled to waste it on sites that display a bunch of non-essential elements that detract from the mobile experience.
Surely, by developing and optimizing a site for mobile – sometimes referred to as the “mobile first” approach is an fantastic way to approach site optimization and foster speedy page loads.
Even if web users do endure a lagging site through the initial click to finally a conversion or purchase, most are much less likely to come back.
64 percent of web visitors who have crappy experience with a website will be more apt to visit a competitor’s site in the future, and they surely won’t recommend piss-poor sites to their friends and associates.
A good place to test your web speed is located here ——>> https://tools.pingdom.com
If you site is performing poorly, here’s a few things you may be able to do on your own:
If you are not tech oriented, there are a number of firms that will work with you to increase your page speed.
Next Steps to Improve Conversions
Shopping cart abandonment still remains high today even in a world where there are a number of tools and optimization strategies to increase the customer’s follow through with their purchase.
An industry watchdog has compiled over 37 studies on shopping cart abandonment and the average of all these studies shows a 69.23% abandonment rate. These are documented studies and span from 2006 to 2016.
One would think, erroneously, that the abandonment rate would be in steady decline, but the number show otherwise. In fact the two most recent studies they received show an
abandonment rate above 70% (Listrak 2016 [78%] and Adobe 2016 [75.5%])!
So What’s the Big Deal? My Customers Are Just Browsing!
If you think about how people shop online nowadays, there is a big reason for such a high percentage of shopping cart abandonment. The obvious reason is that most people are merely price shopping versus other retailers. So a potential customer goes through the entire checkout process to figure out the total product price plus any shipping charges or taxes.
Others just abandon the process because they were simply not ready to buy.
If you eliminate the “just browsing” and “not ready to buy” categories from the study that was conducted, the remaining reasons cited for abandonment take on the following distribution:
Fix Your Shopping Cart Design and Reap the Rewards
Luckily, most of the above issues are completely fixable through design changes. Take a look at your checkout process. How many fields are required for entry? If you answered less than 15 you are on the right track. Remember more than a quarter of shoppers thought the checkout form had too many fields to fill in, or the checkout procedure was just too complicated.
For most checkouts it is possible to reduce the number of fields by anywhere from 20-60%. This could substantially increase your revenue and decrease cart abandonment. In fact, Baynard thinks cart optimization could allow e-commerce businesses to recover over 260 Billion dollars of lost revenue. That’s an incredible statistic if you think about it hard enough.
Is this Worth Doing?
Frankly speaking, it all depends. If you are in the initial stages of developing your e-commerce store, keep these statistics in mind. You may need to take a look at all the shopping cart software providers to figure out how flexible, or inflexible, designing the checkout experience will be.
If you own a multi-million dollar site, and want to hire someone to do this for you, the ROI can be immense. Some industry studies show that an optimized shopping cart can decrease abandonment by up to 35%.
Next Steps for Optimization
You can improve the growth of a business by improving its conversion rate. The conversion rate of an online business means the conversion of the visitor to a website into a customer or client. It can be made possible by using one or a series of Conversion Hacks. The following article lists some of the basic, but often overlooked conversion hacks that can boost your sales.
In fact, conversion hacks guide you to foster an environment to help your customers to find out more about your company and ultimately induce them to purchase. You can create this environment by using either or all the options like email communication, online advertising, people walking into your store, and/or driving traffic to your website.
In this way these hacks can be defined as a tool to measure everything about your business that can help in improving its profitability including the sales cycle of your customers. You can rapidly grow the sales of your business by making optimizations and adjustments at each point of conversion.
Thus, conversion hacks will help in the rapid growth of your business, gain valuable insights about your customers, along with increasing profitability rapidly, and making better use of the money of the investors.
Reasons to Use Conversion Hacks
Some popularly used conversion hacks are briefly described here under to help you in becoming a booming business. Who knows, maybe we will even see you listed in the Fortune 500 one day.
Speed Up Page Load Times to Improve Conversion Rate
The shopping experience through your website can be affected if it takes just a few seconds extra to access your website. So to improve your conversion rate you will have to ensure that you are using reliable servers that load pages quickly for your website. The use of compressed images and video will help speed up page loads as well. After all, most people are busy and do not have the patience to wait for a slowly loading website.
Use of Responsive Design for Mobile, Tablets and Desktop
The design of your website should be responsive so that your visitors can navigate, view and read it easily. Moreover, it should be compatible and responsive to tablets and mobile devices as in future you may expect more traffic to your website through the devices-on-the-go.
Maximize Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
You can get more targeted traffic on your business website by optimizing it with the keywords that can increase your conversion rate.
According to Wikipedia, “SEO is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a web search engine’s unpaid results—often referred to as ‘natural’, ‘organic’, or ‘earned’ results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users; these visitors can then be converted into customers.”
SEO is becoming a more complex and competitive landscape. It is recommended you seek out a competent SEO professional to aid you in this aspect of web optimization.
Display Your Company’s Contact Information
You should make it easier for your visitors to get the information to contact you. It may include all of your links on social media along with online “live chat”options so that your visitors can contact you instantly in case of any issue regarding your products and services.
Test Different Layouts for Your Website
You can test various types of layouts when designing your website to ensure which of them can be the best suitable for improving the conversion rate for your business. The use of A/B testing (testing the results of one page design vs. the original page for conversion rate) is one of the most effective things you can do for your site.
Navigation Between Pages Should Be Smooth and Logical
The visitor to your website should not be mislead or confused while navigating between its pages, as it can cause resentment and frustration for him/her. Make sure your pages and links have a logical flow. Test your link and page flow with customers or survey participants to elicit feedback about your page design. Any issues that users point out should be quickly addressed.
Make Call-to-Action’s in Clear and Bold Words
You should tell your visitors in bold and clear words what you expect from them to do. You can guide them to sign up for newsletter or download a free brochure, if you want them to buy a product from your website. You can increase conversion rate by generating trust through your transparency.
Provide Proof about the Quality of Your Product
You should display the positive endorsements and testimonials posted by the previous users of your products as feedback on your website in such a way so that your visitors can easily see and read them. It will help in converting them into real buyer.
Improve the Search Function of Your Website
If the search function of your website is easy to find then your prospective customer can easily and quickly search what he wants to find on it. If the visitor finds it difficult to search his required item on your website then there are more chances that he may leave it without searching anything.
Include Seals of Your Security Provider
Today visitors are more focused about their safety while visiting a website due to increasing awareness about cyber-security. You should ensure them that the data and information provided by them will be kept safe. Your website should show the seal of a reputed security provider you have partnered with to insure your visitors “safety”.
Pursue Reviews and Referrals Actively
You can ask your customers to post their reviews online about your products to help in generating proof for the future visitors. Strive to put a formalized referral program in place for those who are satisfied with your product or service.
Give Personalized Experience
In order to provide personalized experience to your visitors converted into customers you can use software to provide them recommendations, interactions and feedback along with tracking their product search history.
Emphasize your Guarantee and Return Policy
By stating your refunds and return policies prominently you can make your visitors more comfortable to purchase things from your website.
Provide Visuals of Your Products
You should provide enough number of photos of your products, alone and visuals of someone using the product if applicable. High quality videos of satisfied customers using your products may make a better impact on the visitors.
What To Do Next?
If you are keen on improving your web optimization and growth, it might make sense to get in touch with us. We’ll sit down with you, one on one, and review what areas of your website could be improved. We will then give you a course of action to consider. Great converting websites aren’t built overnight.
User Experience (UX) is a critical element of designing functional and effective websites. The first requirement for an outstanding UX is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without a whole lot of fuss or hassle.
Despite the rigid academic definitions the terms User Interface (UI) and User Experience are used interchangeably. The definition of the title depends entirely on the culture of the company.
The UI/UX designer is an individual who may be responsible for strategy, organization, and execution of an interface that accomplishes the enterprise’s goals.
Though there is no doubt that the internet is the place to be in for all those who wish to start their business, however big or small it might be. The bad news is that the internet is becoming a highly competitive place and getting a toe-hold is becoming extremely tough and difficult.
The first requirement for an outstanding UX is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without a whole lot of fuss or hassle.
As such, there is a need to find out ways and means by which traffic to website increases and eventually results in better revenues and improved sales. However, this is easier said than done and there are quite a few things that must be taken into account, improving User Experience (UX) is of paramount importance.
Unless the website is good enough, visitors will not engage with your site for a decent period of time.
New technology can always make your website look old and obsolete. While redesigning a website might become a necessity, time and money constraints might prevent it from happening. Hence you may belong to that group of people who may not be keen on investing too much of time and money on redesigning the website.
You might rather be looking at ways and means by which you can improve UX by tweaking the existing elements on your site.
Below is a list of some proven ways by which user experience can be improved.
There are many website visitors who often complain of too much white space lying unused. While some bit of white space is essential for good design, too much of it might make the website look barren and dull.
Hence, you must try and ensure that the white space is well utilized. It must not be underused or overused and you must get the right mix. For example having white space around titles and texts increases the attention of the viewers by 20% and they tend to read the contents that much more frequently. Hence this is an important aspect which never must be lost sight of.
Page speed is an important point to be kept in mind when it comes to enhancing user experience. We are all today living in a world where time is a major constraint.
Hence it is important to ensure that the page speed must be optimal and waiting period must be as little as possible. It must be in line with accepted international norms and practices. You could use some good websites as a benchmark when it comes to speedy loading of the websites.
This is too important a feature to be given the miss and if done, it could damage the user experience of your website beyond repair.
Customers are smart and they spend some looking at the contents and audiovisual impacts and draw a conclusion as to what is important and relevant to them. As a website designer, having the right call to action is extremely vital. It helps the user to take a call whether to spend money on the products and services based on the information and the user experience that he has gone through.
Hence a good quality call to action with a suitable action word would help your customer to not only take a buying decision but also help them to navigate easily to various parts of the website and get the information which they want. You must carefully choose the action word or words and generally it should be a very that could excite the visitors and actually take part in some action.
The main purpose of adding a hyperlink is to try and persuade the user to click on the link. Hence this forms an important aspect of user experience (UX). There are a few things you must do to ensure that the links are easily identifiable from the rest of the text.
There are simple things which you could do. You could highlight the linked text, change the colors, or even increase to font size so that it stands out from the crowd so to say. Blue and underlined text are effective link formats, but testing of different colors and fonts could still bump your conversion rate.
The size of the link is also important. The more number of words in the link, the easier it will be identifiable. However the link text should be relevant to the search being done by the user and it should not be out of the way.
Another great way to improve user experience is to ensure that you break up the content into sub-headings so that it becomes easily readable. Just writing big chunks of text will put off the reader and you will most certainly see the visitors leaving the site within seconds.
You also must understand the importance of bullets. They make the content readable and capture the attention of the reader, especially on specifics which are extremely important as far as the product or services are concerned.
There is no doubt that having an audio or visual content on your website certainly helps your cause in more ways than one. Images, pictures and videos “say” a lot more than text and therefore they must be used generously. However, the use of the images and pictures must be done judiciously and you must try and avoid cluttering the site with too many images, which may distract from your Call To Action (CTA).
While search engines might not punish you for 404 error pages, you can be sure that in most cases users will not forgive you. If they come across 404 error pages, you can be sure that the users will just move away and the worst thing is that they will not leave any reason why they exited the site.
Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is a wonderful methodology that can be used for providing a great opportunity for the businesses of all sizes.
This methodology involves the scientific approach of optimization of the websites and enabling the businesses and the organizations to convert many more visitors into subscribers or customers.
The best part is that even very small changes can bring out a big difference. Not everyone is able to determine these changes.
Here is a brief overview which may facilitate you in knowing more facts about conversion rate optimization and how to execute it. You may start a testing program and measure the possible results within a stipulated period.
CRO is of great significance for the founders of startups, entrepreneurs, bloggers, marketers and several others who are looking forward to improve the conversion rates on their newly launched or existing websites.
CRO can be effectively used by different types of organizations which majorly include the SaaS businesses, e-Commerce stores, political campaigns and non-profit organizations.
Internet marketing is undoubtedly the latest sensation and it can be optimally used for generating a lot of revenue for your business in two major ways:
With the implementation of conversion rate optimization, you will be able to evaluate your business website’s sales funnel in order to identify the ways to get higher percentage of people signing up for your offered service or product.
After this step, you may try out a hypothesis and then a test in order to determine if there are any loopholes in our website or any of the web pages. Then in order to correct the same, you may consider creating a new version of your website which would ideally help in getting much more visitors signing up or purchasing from your website.
After the implementation of the CRO methodology in a proper form, you may be able to determine the difference in the number of visitors and conversion before and after implementation of CRO. It certainly helps you in convincing many more people to buy your offered product or service.
In the process of the implementation of CRO, you may notice that the expert implementer would bring in some big and small changes in the layout, copy and the design as well.
All the mentioned parameters are optimized to the best level in order to attract more and more prospective customers to purchase your service or product.
For example, a well-known e-commerce company once changed a single word in the “call-to-action” page of their website and reaped a 221% increase in the leads in their homepage which is freakin’ awesome.
The example quoted above is certainly an outcome which is desirable by several big, mid and small businesses.
The best part is that even very small changes can bring out a big difference. Not everyone is able to determine these changes.
It is only the CRO experts having extensive experience in internet marketing would be able to implement certain effective changes for bringing in a significant impact on the bottom line.
This is obvious that the effective testing is the most critical process in the overall methodology of conversion rate optimization process. Without a proper testing, you have no other way other than relying on the gut feeling that you may have. These gut instincts may not always yield the desirable results.
There are several tests which you may run eventually in order to test the different headlines, various newly introduced value propositions, various button colors and effective call-to-action copy and several more things. Each of the mentioned changes has the opportunity for impacting the conversions positively.
Value Proposition of Implementation of Conversion Rate Optimization
This is a general perception that conversion rate optimization can be effectively implemented as it has the right potential of generating more sales volume from the same amount of the traffic in your website.
This does not make much sense to shed a lot of money into PPC or several other digital marketing methodologies.
Instead some amount of money can be utilized in implementing CRO to effectively convert the current traffic in your website into leads or sales. Alongside if you are also running a campaign to drive more traffic in your website along with a CRO campaign, you are bound to get even more increased results for your digital marketing initiatives and efforts.
Is Testing Inevitable in a CRO Campaign?
This is a very common query that whether it is really required to conduct a test in a CRO campaign or it is alright to learn from other peoples’ experiences.
As per the experts, when it comes to the methodology of conversion rate optimization, there are several people who think of doing the same but do not usually end up in doing so.
For many people, they are inclined to copy the tests that were performed on the successful CRO campaigns on other websites. But this is not at all the scientific methodology of conducting a CRO campaign.
Different websites have different things to offer, so a fixed formula is not applicable universally.
When you are copying someone else’s method, you are not very sure that whether you will be receiving the same results as they have received as all websites are different from each other.
A particular company may have changed that call to action (CTA) button from green to red and have increased their conversions by 21%. This may not be true for your website as well.
Maybe the red colored button is a better complement with that particular website’s design but is not suitable as per your website’s design. So, unless you conduct a test, you may not be able to determine the effective changes for your website.
A/B Testing can be a challenge for many business owners. Figuring what to test, is as important as the test itself.
It is part of an active approach to conversion rate optimization, which does not stop at the conversion goal (more opt-ins, more leads, etc.), as many people think.
In fact, having the proper tools and strategy, conversion optimization may become an addictive culture in your business as well as a science.
Beginning with a well-defined hypothesis, each and every stage offer actionable, valuable data that produce perfect results for your website.
But, What is Conversion Optimization (CRO) Exactly?
Well, Conversion Rate Optimization or simply Conversion Optimization (CRO) is a system of raising the number of traffic or visitors to a site that has an intention of turning or converting them into customers.
It’s a technique of using analytics plus user feedback to improve the overall performance of your website.
CRO may be applied to improve any individual metric on your site which is crucial to your online business and is often referred as a Key Performance Indicator or KPI.
It’s associated with acquiring new clients, customer registrations or sign ups, downloads, or some desired action (driving people to watch you favorite cat video).
Basically CRO means figuring out what visitors are searching, specifically once they arrive at your website and providing that to them.
It takes many different forms, depending on the KPI you are trying to improve.
Sometimes, it even involves making your call-to-action apparent or initiating it on a heavy-traffic but under-optimized page.
Other times, it means removing or just relocating complicated or time-consuming procedures, such as filing out a form with a crazy number of fields, especially from your site’s conversion funnel.
GOAL: In this article, you will get more detailed information concerning A/B Testing Platform that can lay the foundation for an effective Conversion Rate Optimization strategy as well as ensuring that you are maximizing your ROI.
A/B Testing is one of the best tools for CRO.
It enables you to pit various versions of your website page against each other and also funnel your site visitors or traffic into each version to determine which design may result in the most successful user experience.
For instance, it determines whether more people click the “Add to Cart” button in either A or B version.
Most of the A/B tests ideas are simple, but proper A/B testing services ensure that it is easy and fun to operate and run many tests quickly.
You’ll start observing results pour in about how your traffic reacts to different variations.
A/B Testing platforms can ignite your conversion optimization, particularly when integrated with other services.
What to Test Using A/B Testing
Your choice entirely depends on the goals you want to achieve.
In this case, the goal of A/B testing is to figure out what exactly prevents people from signing up.
Is it the length of the form intimidating? Test forms with less fields or less pieces of contact information.
Does the website do a bad job of persuading visitors to sign up?
All these questions may have solutions by testing the necessary site elements.
Individual components of A/B test are usually tested, even though every test is unique. They include:
Benefits of an A/B Test for Conversion Optimization
Most companies are currently discovering that data and information are just as much of a product as the services and items they offer.
Regardless of involving a product, content, and service on a site, modern enterprise is all about building value for your clients.
Providing value to the customers is certainly crucial, but you should have a means to measure this value as well.
Currently, the best data-driven businesses not only store and analyze data, but also create actionable data by using A/B testing.
To provide you with a better understanding of how this testing works plus how it may assist your business, the following are some benefits of using an A/B testing tool for the conversion optimization in your website.
Improved Content Engagement
Whenever you produce two versions of a blog post, article, landing page, or any other form of content on your site, A/B testing method allows you to gauge which version attracts more clients or interaction and user engagement.
While you are in the process of testing, you are forced to evaluate each and every aspect of content you want to build and test.
As you consider and make variables for your A/B testing, you can also create big lists of potential improvements.
As a result, the simple act of running a test on the web page’s content invariably ensures that your final versions are better for your clients.
Increased Conversion Rates
Currently, in the digital world, the ultimate objective for any form of content on a business site is to convert the visitors into customers.
Conversions Rates Optimization is what makes or breaks any online company, and you will not be in business for long without them.
A/B testing is the easiest and most efficient method of finding a way to create content that usually converts more visitors into real buyers.
Once you take your time to craft two versions of content for your Web Page carefully, it is relatively easy to discover what works and what does not.
If you do your A/B testing properly, especially using two versions of page content, it will assist you to convert more leads.
A/B testing not only help in converting more site visitors into customers but also helps you achieve higher conversion values.
If you get a page/form design that seems to be converting, it does not mean that you should just leave as it is forever.
A/B test with a more refined version is initiated to increase conversions for the expensive or precious items plus services.
In fact, you can just find that clients are willing to jump to the more expensive option that is perceived to offer great value.
Key Factors for Successful A/B Testing
Choosing a proper A/B testing software is one of the best ways in achieving your success.
Other factors, like avoiding false positive, determining what to test, and garnering organization-wide support for A/B testing are also crucial.
Below are some specific factors to consider, especially when planning for an A/B test:
What Should You Want to Test?
A/B testing may assist you to select the best-performing color for your “call-to-action” button, but it is not only limited to that. The button color may not be an adequate test that will succeed.
A large number of A/B tests result to nothing at all where version A and B perform similarly.
The testing is not conducted in a vacuum, but many resources can assist you to create a test that will yield desirable results.
The best place to start with is to understand what is in the minds of your website visitors and customers through qualitative feedback tools.
Testing Requires Dedicated Resources
A/B testing tends to be less successful, especially when employees having other full-time responsibilities, just like any other role. Therefore, it becomes a one-off task instead of a continuous process of improvement.
In fact, many experts conclude that, when a web analyst is in control of A/B testing, it cannot get the ultimate attention it deserves.
Also to put together a team that is dedicated to testing and of course, optimizing your website, it is also crucial to get the entire company involved. This includes allowing test ideas from anyone in that organization, not just the team undertaking the tests.
Understand what Statistical Significance Means
Most A/B testing tools track statistical significance of a particular test as it runs.
For instance, it tells you that the new variation has an 85% chance of out-performing the original one consistently.
However, the standard perfect practice is that a test is required to run until it attains a 95% confidence level which means that there is 5% chance that the winner is a false positive.
Furthermore, there are some other factors you need to consider beyond the confidence level that is calculated by the A/B testing tool.
In fact, most experts recommend that the test is supposed to run for at least a week and be exposed to a specified amount of traffic, even if the statistical significance is already achieved.
When you establish a new website, product, or even an email campaign that is specifically designed for a broad audience, you can take various testing measures to ensure that it is successful.
Many people want to understand what is best for their customers, specifically what will make them happy.
A/B testing is a vital secret ingredient or just a unique flavoring to build a hot product that your visitors will love. Currently, the customer-centered vision plays a significant role to success in any business domain.
The real-time feedback is crucial, especially when implementing your Conversion Rate Optimization, CRO Plan.
The data received from your clients can be used to optimize any region of your website depending on the behavior of your customers.
A/B testing assist you to improve the content you provide by regularly checking the possible theories that work and selecting the most successful one.
It will be clear which variant makes the clients navigate deeper through the site, spend more time interacting, put a like, sign up to get additional information, comment, or purchase your product.
Instead of reading and making wild guesses, you just initiate a test and finally find the winning approach.
If properly used, A/B testing may assist you to improve your enterprise and also raise its profitability.
Ensure you make more from that analytical data that you receive every day and store it.
Note that even slight changes in conversion rates of your site can bring significant and positive results in sales and also in lead generation.
However, do not forget performance testing which should be considered as a part of your optimization and design.
Most of the Web pages, even a small page load increase may foul something that can be a winning design.
Alongside other tests, page load speed and page size must also be tested.
Consider This Before Embarking on an Optimization Campaign
All you need to perform A/B tests is a team of about four people and the proper software to run A/B tests.
The team should be made up of a designer or front-end developer, an engineer, and a business analyst or the product owner.
Ensure that your designer can think critically and carry out tests.
The product person must have the skills to analyze the tests as they happen which will cut down the costs of moving to another department for a test result.
You also need to select a metric. However, The metric you choose may probably not tell the entire test story.
In fact, plenty of smart people has been puzzled by their test results.
Therefore, you will be required to look at lots of various metrics to figure out when changes happen. Who will do all these for you?